The Circle of Courage – Native American Model of Education

“Anthropologists have long known that Native Americans reared courageous, respectful children without using harsh coercive controls. Nevertheless, Europeans colonizing North America tried to “civilize” indigenous children in punitive boarding schools, unaware that Natives possessed a sophisticated philosophy that treated children with deep respect.”The Circle of CourageCircle Courage Long

“The Circle of Courage is a model of positive youth development first described in the book Reclaiming Youth at Risk, co-authored by Larry Brendtro, Martin Brokenleg, and Steve Van Bockern. The model integrates Native American philosophies of child-rearing, the heritage of early pioneers in education and youth work, and contemporary resilience research. The Circle of Courage is based in four universal growth needs of all children: belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity.

These traditional values are validated by contemporary child research and are consistent with the findings of Stanley Coopersmith who identified four foundations for self-worth: significance, competence, power, and virtue. These are summarized below:

In Native American and First Nations cultures, significance was nurtured in communities of belonging. Lakota anthropologist Ella Deloria described the core value of belonging in these simple words: “Be related, somehow, to everyone you know.” Treating others as kin forges powerful social bonds that draw all into relationships of respect. Theologian Marty observed that throughout history the tribe, not the nuclear family, always ensured the
survival of the culture. Even if parents died or were not responsible, the tribe was always there to nourish the next generation.

Competence in traditional cultures is ensured by guaranteed opportunity for mastery. Children were taught to carefully observe and listen to those with more experience. A person with greater ability was seen as a model for learning, not as a rival. Each person strives for mastery for personal growth, but not to be superior to someone else. Humans have an innate drive to become competent and solve problems. With success in surmounting challenges, the desire to achieve is strengthened.

Power in Western culture was based on dominance, but in tribal traditions it meant respecting the right for independence. In contrast to obedience models of discipline, Native teaching was designed to build respect and teach inner discipline. From earliest childhood, children were encouraged to make decisions, solve problems, and show personal responsibility. Adults modeled, nurtured, taught values, and gave feedback, but children were given abundant opportunities to make choices without coercion.

Finally, virtue was reflected in the pre-eminent value of generosity. The central goal in Native American child-rearing is to teach the importance of being generous and unselfish. In the words of a Lakota Elder, “You should be able to give away your most cherished possession without your heart beating faster.” In helping others, youth create their own proof of worthiness: they make a positive contribution to another human life.”

All text sources: Reclaiming Youth International & Circle of Courage

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About Christopher Chase

Co-creator and Admin of the Facebook pages "Tao & Zen" "Art of Learning" & "Creative Systems Thinking." Majored in Studio Art at SUNY, Oneonta. Graduated in 1993 from the Child & Adolescent Development program at Stanford University's School of Education. Since 1994, have been teaching at Seinan Gakuin University, in Fukuoka, Japan.
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29 Responses to The Circle of Courage – Native American Model of Education

  1. Karen Lanser says:

    Beautiful … thank you.

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  5. biochemlife says:

    This goes along with Daniel Pink (2009) compilation of research about the keys to motivation. Autonomy (independence) Purpose (generosity and belonging) and Mastery (same).

    Pink, D. (2009). Drive. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Group.

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  7. Peter Nena says:

    The earth has had greater things. But the foolishness of man is infinite.

    • Peter Nena says:

      The same teachings were also carried out in traditional African societies. Even now, some people still put stress on belonging and generosity. Although the society has become very much shredded thanks to an economic system based on scarcity and individualism.

  8. Reblogged this on For the Earth Blog and commented:
    I have such hope for our future when I think about how these values can be integrated into our current dominant culture. xoxox

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  14. Stefan Persaud says:

    I have been using this model for quite a while as extended version of Selfdetermination theory for Bachelor students, just during regular lessons and also as coach. I can tell you from my own experience, it builds relationships amongst students and teachers, it is an important “missing link” from the Deci and Ryan theory, which is built on Western way of thinking about education. I would like to meet other teachers to share experiences. grtz Stefan from the Netherlands

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  16. debendra2020 says:

    Reblogged this on Debendra's Blog.

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  19. Jean Richerson says:

    I really feel myself in this website, I hope more information hadind out more and more

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  22. Dixie La Grznde says:

    Full circle life cycle. Enlightened common sense respecting family and community. ..& inspiring personal acccountablilty… thank you those connected to The Earth and Sky and Seasons’ Cycles.
    We ARE indeed each resonible for our own words thoughts & deeds. Cannot change others, can only change ourselves, by changing our thoughts THEN changed feelings, actions & results follow .
    Change your own thoughts idea is from Brooke Castillo. She calls it ‘The Model. ‘ The Life Coach School. ) from The Model, teaches it at The Life Coach School.

    …& it takes only one person to change the world for the better, inspiring others . Better together. RIP Congressman John R. LEWIS ..

    Great universal wisdom. We need to remember The Golden Rule now more than ever.

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