The Holistic View – 全体論 – システムズシンキング

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Systems thinking (システムズシンキング) is understanding how complex systems work holistically (as a whole) where the interdependence, natural processes and inter-relationship of parts is clear. “システムシンキングでは、全体のシステムを構成する要素間のつながりと相互作用に注目し、その上で、全体の振る舞いに洞察を与える.”

風が吹けば桶屋が儲かる- Any event can bring about an effect in an unexpected wayかぜがふけばおけやがもうかる)とは日本のことわざで、ある事象の発生により、一見すると全く関係がないと思われる場所・物事に影響が及ぶことの喩えである。また現代では、その論証に用いられる例が突飛であるゆえに、「可能性の低い因果関係を無理矢理つなげてできたこじつけの理論・言いぐさ」を指すことも多い。

SystemsScience1A

全体論 (Holistic View, Holism) – 全体論と訳すこともある. ホーリズムは有機体論やシステム論と関連がある.

二元論 (Dualistic view) See everything as separated, divided dualistically, us vs. them, good vs. bad, etc. “世界や事物の根本的な原理として、それらは背反する二つの原理や基本的要素から構成される、または二つからなる区分に分けられるとする概念のこと.”

知恵 “chie” (wisdom). Understand deeply from observation and experience. Naturally see the truth of the whole situation. 物事をありのままに把握し、真理を見極める認識力。

397825_304721952992080_1098340286_n 自然治癒力 Regeneration, system maintains it’s healthy functioning, also self-healing processes for complex systems (body, ecosystem, etc). The system is sustainable (持続可能性).

A related term is オートポイエーシス (autopoiesis). A self-organizing system able to self-construct, maintain and reproduce itself over long periods of time.  この概念はむしろ、そのシステム論的斬新さから、システム論情報学心理療法経営管理など、生物学以外の分野において広く引用されている。

黄金比 Golden Ratio は、

1 : \frac{1 + \sqrt{5}}{2}

である。近似値は1:1.618、約5:8。

Golden Ratio Mona線分を ab の長さで 2 つに分割するときに、a : b = b : (a + b) が成り立つように分割したときの比 a : b のことであり、最も美しい比とされる。貴金属比の1つ(第1貴金属比)。 フィボナッチ数フィボナッチすう、Fibonacci number)は、イタリアの数学者レオナルド・フィボナッチ(ピサのレオナルド)にちなんで名付けられた数である。フィボナッチ数列の一般項は次の式で表される[3]:

F_n = \frac{1}{\sqrt{5}} \left\{ \left( \frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2} \right)^n - \left( \frac{1-\sqrt{5}}{2} \right)^n \right\} = {{\phi^n - (-\phi)^{-n}} \over \sqrt{5}} ただし、\phi \equiv \frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2} \simeq 1.618 033 988 749 895 は黄金比

  • フィボナッチ数は自然界の現象に数多く出現する。
    • 花びらの数はフィボナッチ数であることが多い。
    • 植物に現れる螺旋の数もフィボナッチ数であることが多い。
      • ヒマワリの螺旋の数はフィボナッチ数とされることもあるが、螺旋の数が多い場合、中心から離れると螺旋の隙間にも種ができてしまうため、途中から枝分かれしてフィボナッチ数にならないこともある[9]
    • パイナップルの螺旋の数は時計回りは13、反時計回りは8になっている。
    • 葉序(植物の葉の付き方)はフィボナッチ数と関連している。
    • ハチアリなど、オスに父親がない家系を辿っていくとフィボナッチ数列が現れる(父母2匹、祖父母3匹、曽祖父母5匹、高祖父母8匹…)。

Food Systems – Economics, Politics, Health & Farming

food systems

Holistic Farming Systems

the wayNatural farming (自然農法) – Natural farming is an ecological farming approach established by Masanobu Fukuoka 福岡正信 (1913–2008), a Japanese farmer and philosopher (see photo below), introduced in his 1975 book The One-Straw Revolution. Fukuoka described his way of farming as 自然農法 (shizen nōhō) in Japanese. It is also referred to as “the Fukuoka Method”, “the natural way of farming” or “do-nothing farming”. Natural farming is related to fertility farming, organic farmingsustainable agricultureagroforestryecoagriculture and permaculture.

地産地消  chisan chisho

地産地消 (chi san chi shou) Local production for local consumption). Local food or the local food movement is a “collaborative effort to build more locally based, self-reliant food economies – one in which sustainable food production, processing, distribution, and consumption is integrated to enhance the economic, environmental and social health of a particular place.”

Education and Psychology

multiple intelligencesMI理論による8つの知能

The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI理論) – Based on research of human learning, development and cognition, MI theory was developed by Harvard University Prof. Howard Gardner. MI理論 suggests that each individual possesses a unique blend of  intelligences. Further reading: 多元的知能の世界―MI理論の活用と可能性 単行本 by ハワード ガードナー

1 言語的知能 (Linguistic Intelligence) 話しことば・書きことばへの感受性、言語学習・運用能力など.

2 論理数学的知能 (Mathematical Intelligence) 問題を論理的に分析したり、数学的な操作をしたり、問題を科学的に究明する能力.

3 博物的知能 (Ecological Intelligence) 自然や人工物の種類を識別する能力.

4 空間的知能 (Visual Intelligence) 空間のパターンを認識して操作する能力.

5 身体運動的知能 (Physical Intelligence) 体全体や身体部位を問題解決や創造のために使う能力.

6 音楽的知能 (Musical Intelligence) リズムや音程・和音・音色の識別、音楽演奏や作曲・鑑賞のスキル .

7 対人的知能 (Social Intelligence) 他人の意図や動機・欲求を理解して、他人とうまくやっていく能力.

8 内省的知能 (Emotional Intelligence) 自分自身を理解して、自己の作業モデルを用いて自分の生活を統制する能力.

800px-Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (自己実現理論) マズローは、人間の基本的欲求を低次から述べると、以下の通りである。

  1. 生理的欲求 (Physiological needs)
  2. 安全の欲求 (Safety needs)
  3. 所属と愛の欲求 (Social needs / Love and belonging)
  4. 承認(尊重)の欲求 (Esteem)
  5. 自己実現の欲求 (Self-actualization)

Achievement vs. Mastery Models of Education

mastery achievement

Achievement Model of Education (right) is test driven and teacher-centered, with a heavy emphasis on academic study. The system is hierarchal and focused on achievement rankings, as determined by standardized test scores. It is sometimes referred to as the “factory model” of schooling because it allows those in positions of “authority” to exert control over teachers and students, much as a factory owner will control workers on an assembly line. Those who gain higher test scores “move up,” gaining social status and eventually greater financial rewards. The motivation, interest and experience of the student is the responsibility of learners, not teachers. This system helps to create winners and losers in society.

Mastery Model of  Education (left) is is learner-centered, not test or teacher focused. The motivation, interest and experience of the learner is considered key to the success of this method of instruction. Montessori schools and traditional European apprenticeship models take this approach, as do many successful sports coaches, music teachers and parents of young children. It’s also characteristic of traditional arts training in Asian countries- such as for karate, tea ceremony, judo and archery. With mastery education rankings are designations of progress, and are viewed as fluid (not fixed) categories.

brain scans

Skill Development Through Practice and Self Construction – Skill development takes time, so practice and effort is most important. With the mastery model of education effort and practice are emphasized, to encourage skill development and mastery, through self-construction and オートポイエーシス (autopoiesis).

It is expected that speed of learning by individuals will vary widely, so there is less pressure about test results and deadlines. Learners take tests when they are ready and feedback is given by teachers to motivate each individual to keep improving. The focus is on growth, maturity, skillfulness and learning, corresponding to what psychologist Carol Dweck calls a “growth” mindset. The achievement model of education is based on a “fixed” mindset.

fixed growth mindset

Examples of Systems Thinkers

Systems thinking is understanding the connections and inter-relationships between various parts of systems, it is very ecological (博物的知能) and visual (空間的知能) thinking, using our imagination to organize and represent the various connections of knowledge. This makes it easier to understand why problems exist and how to solve them.

In modern societies, dualistic thinking and a lack of love (compassion) has created many problems. So systems thinking together with social and emotional intelligence (対人的知能 & 内省的知能) is a kind of wisdom. When humans think wisely (with imagination, knowledge and heart) we are able to creatively solve problems. Examples of wise systems thinkers would be Buddha, Jesus, Gandhi, Einstein, Mother Theresa, the Dalai Lama and many others…

Severn Suzuki Rio, 1992 (full speech transcript)

Martin Luther King, 1967 Speech transcript (half text)

Screen Shot 2015-09-06 at 8.09.09 PM

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Morihei Ueshiba  (植芝 盛平), December 14, 1883 – April 26, 1969) was a martial artist and founder of the Japanese martial artof aikido. He is often referred to as Ōsensei (大先生/翁先生), “Great Teacher.”  Aikido (合気道) is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. Aikido is often translated as “the Way of unifying (with) life energy” or as “the Way of harmonious spirit.”

wabi-sabi1

Wabi-sabi (?) わび・さび(侘・寂)は、日本の美意識の1つ。一般的に、質素で静かなものを指す。本来侘(わび)と寂(さび)は別の概念であるが、現代ではひとまとめにされて語られることが多い。Wabi-sabit represents a comprehensive Japanese world view or aesthetic centered on the acceptance of transience and imperfection. The aesthetic is sometimes described as one of beauty that is “imperfect, impermanent, and incomplete”.  In today’s Japan, the meaning of wabi-sabi is often condensed to “wisdom in natural simplicity.” In art books, it is typically defined as “flawed beauty.”

ホログラフィック原理 (holographic principle). The physical universe is widely seen to be composed of “matter” and “energy”.  Jacob Bekenstein summarized a current trend started by John Archibald Wheeler, which suggests scientists may “regard the physical world as made of information, with energy and matter as incidentals.” 物理的宇宙は”物質”と”エネルギー”で構成されていると広くみなされている。2003年発刊された雑誌サイエンティフィック・アメリカンの記事で、ヤコブ・ベッケンシュタインジョン・ホイーラーから始まった現在のトレンドを要約した。これは、科学者たちが“物理的世界は情報でできており、エネルギーと物質は副次的なものであるととらえる”であろうことを示唆している。

The Source of most text above is from Wikipedia

“I look at you all see the love there that’s sleeping While my guitar gently weeps I look at the floor and I see it needs sweeping Still my guitar gently weeps I don’t know why nobody told you how to unfold your love I don’t know how someone controlled you They bought and sold you.

I look at the world and I notice it’s turning While my guitar gently weeps With every mistake we must surely be learning Still my guitar gently weeps I don’t know how you were diverted You were perverted too I don’t know how you were inverted No one alerted you.

I look at you all see the love there that’s sleeping While my guitar gently weeps Look at you all… Still my guitar gently weeps.”

While My Guitar Gently Weeps (Wikipedia)

“The real you is not a puppet which life pushes around. The real deep down YOU is the Whole Universe. And It’s doing– Your living organism and all its behavior– it’s expressing it as a singer sings a song… You are something that the Whole Universe is doing, in the same way that a wave is something that the Whole Ocean is doing…” ~Alan Watts

More Creative Systems Thinkers

Lech Walesa – How the world needs to work together

Mikhail Gorbechev – We must change to save the planet

Nobel Prize winner Mohammed Yunus speaking on poverty

The Dalai Lama – “The Whole World is One”

Joi Ito – principles of collaborative creativity in this age

David Bohm speaks of Wholeness & Fragmentation

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About Christopher Chase

Co-creator and Admin of the Facebook pages "Tao & Zen" "Art of Learning" & "Creative Systems Thinking." Majored in Studio Art at SUNY, Oneonta. Graduated in 1993 from the Child & Adolescent Development program at Stanford University's School of Education. Since 1994, have been teaching at Seinan Gakuin University, in Fukuoka, Japan.
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